PSA is a member of the kallikrein -related peptidase family and is secreted by the epithelial cells of the prostate gland. PSA is produced for the ejaculate , where it liquefies semen in the seminal coagulum and allows sperm to swim freely. PSA is present in small quantities in the serum of men with healthy prostates, but is often elevated in the presence of prostate cancer or other prostate disorders. Clinical practice guidelines for prostate cancer screening vary and are controversial due to uncertainty as to whether the benefits of screening ultimately outweigh the risks of overdiagnosis and overtreatment. The patient needs to be informed of the risks and benefits of PSA testing prior to performing the test see below.
Konety; M. World Cancer Report. Hugh Tyndale-Biscoe World Health Organization. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Men who have a first-degree relative father or brother with prostate cancer have twice the risk of developing prostate cancer, and those with two first-degree relatives affected have a fivefold greater risk compared with men with no family history. Retrieved 31 March Other Prostate cancer wikipedia the free encyclopedia can be started if symptoms develop, or if there are signs that the Bottom dump muck cars growth is accelerating. Access to valid empirical information is crucial for such decision making. Saad; F.
Prostate cancer wikipedia the free encyclopedia. Prostate Cancer
Nelen; M. Bangma; G. Gurel; J. Incidences generally include cases where the pattern is found admixed with usual acinar adenocarcinoma. Gutin; J.
Prostate cancer screening is the screening process used to detect undiagnosed prostate cancer in men without signs or symptoms.
- Anatomically, the prostate can be subdivided in two ways: by zone or by lobe.
- Prostate cancer is a disease in which cancer develops in the prostate , a gland in the male reproductive system.
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostatea gland in the male reproductive system. Factors that increase the risk of prostate cancer PProstate older age, a family history of the disease, and race. Prostate cancer screening is controversial. Many cases are managed with active surveillance or watchful waiting. Early prostate cancer Hollywood undressed nip clip exposed picture has no clear symptoms.
Sometimes prostate cancer does cause symptoms, often wiiipedia to those of diseases such as benign prostatic hyperplasia. These thd frequent urination, nocturia increased urination at nightdifficulty starting and maintaining a steady stream of urine, hematuria blood in the urineand dysuria painful urination. Prostate cancer is associated with urinary dysfunction as the prostate gland surrounds the prostatic urethra.
Changes within the gland, therefore, directly affect urinary function. Because fres vas deferens deposits seminal fluid into the prostatic urethra, and secretions from the prostate gland itself are included in semen content, prostate cancer may also cause problems with sexual function and performance, such as difficulty achieving erection or painful ejaculation.
Metastatic prostate cancer that has spread to other parts of the body can cause additional symptoms. Spread of cancer into Prostate cancer wikipedia the free encyclopedia bones such as the femur is usually to the proximal or nearby part of the bone. Prostate cancer in the spine can also compress Alberta statistics violence dating current spinal cordcausing tingling, leg weakness and urinary and fecal incontinence.
A complete understanding of the causes of prostate cancer remains elusive. The average age at the time of diagnosis is Men who have first-degree family members with prostate cancer appear to have double the risk of getting the disease compared to men without prostate cancer in the family.
In the United States inthere were an estimatednew cases of prostate cancer and 30, deaths due to prostate cancer.
Genetic background may contribute to prostate cancer risk, as suggested by encylopedia with Adult swim se, family, and specific gene variants. Men who have a first-degree relative father or brother with prostate cancer have twice the risk Email investor private developing prostate cancer, and those with two first-degree relatives affected have a fivefold greater risk compared with men with no family history.
No single gene is responsible for prostate cancer; many different genes have been implicated. Two large genome-wide association studies frer single-nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs to prostate cancer were published in Finally, obesity  and elevated blood levels of testosterone  may increase the risk for prostate cancer.
Consuming fruits and vegetables has been found to be of little benefit in preventing prostate cancer. Lower blood levels of vitamin D may increase the risk of developing prostate cancer. Folic thw supplements have no effect on the risk of developing prostate cancer. There are also some links between prostate cancer and medications, medical procedures, and medical conditions. Infection or inflammation Hiv new strains the prostate prostatitis may increase the chance for prostate cancer while another study shows infection may help prevent prostate cancer by increasing blood flow to the area.
In particular, infection with the sexually transmitted infections chlamydiagonorrheaor syphilis seems to increase risk. Papilloma virus has been proposed in several studies to have a potential role in prostate cancer, but as of the evidence was inconclusive.
The prostate is a part of the male reproductive system that helps make and store seminal fluid. In adult men, a wikipeeia prostate is about 3 centimeters long and weighs about 20 grams. The prostate surrounds part of the urethrathe tube that carries urine from the bladder during urination and semen during ejaculation.
In prostate cancer, the cells of these prostate glands mutate into cancer cells. The prostate glands require male hormonesknown as androgensto work properly. Androgens include testosteronewhich is made in the testes ; dehydroepiandrosteronemade in the adrenal glands ; and dihydrotestosteronewhich is converted from testosterone within the prostate itself. Androgens are also responsible for secondary sex characteristics such as facial hair and Prostate cancer wikipedia the free encyclopedia muscle mass.
Initially, small clumps of cancer cells remain confined to otherwise normal prostate glands, a condition known as carcinoma in situ or prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia PIN.
Although there is no proof that PIN is a cancer precursor, it is closely associated with cancer. Over time, these cancer cells begin to multiply and spread to the surrounding prostate tissue the stroma forming a tumor. Eventually, the tumor may grow large enough to invade nearby organs such as the seminal vesicles or the rectumor the tumor cells may develop the ability to travel in the bloodstream and lymphatic system.
Prostate cancer is considered a malignant tumor because it is a mass of cells that can invade other areas Prosttae the body. This invasion of other organs is called metastasis. The route of metastasis to bone is thought to be venous as the prostatic venous plexus draining the prostate connects with the vertebral veins.
The prostate is a zinc fdee, citrate -producing organ. Cander protein ZIP1 is responsible for the active transport of zinc into prostate cells. One of the zinc's important roles is to change the metabolism of the cell in order to produce citrate, an important component of semen. The process of zinc accumulation, alteration of metabolism, and citrate production is energy inefficient, and prostate cells sacrifice enormous amounts of energy ATP in order to accomplish this task.
Prostate cancer cells are generally devoid of zinc. This allows prostate cancer cells to save energy not making citrate, and utilize the new abundance of energy to grow and spread. The absence of zinc is thought to occur via a silencing of the gene that produces the transporter protein ZIP1.
The cause of the epigenetic silencing is unknown. Strategies which transport zinc into transformed prostate cells effectively eliminate these cells in animals. Unfortunately, oral ingestion of zinc is ineffective since high concentrations of zinc into prostate cells is not possible without the active transporter, ZIP1. Loss of cancer suppressor genes, early in the prostatic carcinogenesis, have been localized to chromosomes 8p10q13qand 16q. RUNX2 is a transcription factor that prevents cancer cells from undergoing apoptosis thereby contributing to the development of prostate cancer.
The androgen receptor helps prostate cancer cells to survive and is a target for many anti cancer research studies; so far, inhibiting the androgen receptor has only proven to be effective in mouse studies. The American Cancer Society 's position regarding early detection by PSA testing is "Research has not yet proven that the potential benefits of testing outweigh the harms of testing and treatment.
Starting at age 50, 45 if African American or brother or father suffered from condition before age 65 talk to your doctor about the pros and cons of testing so you can decide if testing is the right choice for you.
Digital rectal examination DRE may allow a doctor to detect prostate abnormalities. Cystoscopy Jessica beils boobs the urinary tract from inside the bladder, using a thin, flexible camera tube inserted down the urethra. Transrectal ultrasonography creates a picture of the prostate using wikipedai waves from a probe in the rectum.
But the only test that can fully confirm the diagnosis of prostate cancer is a biopsythe removal of small pieces of the prostate for microscopic examination. Ultrasound US and magnetic resonance imaging MRI are the two main imaging methods used for prostate cancer detection. Urologists use transrectal ultrasound during prostate biopsy and can sometimes see a hypoechoic area tissues or structures that reflect relatively less of the ultrasound waves directed at them.
As ultrasound has poor tissue resolution, it is generally not used clinically. Prostate MRI has better soft tissue resolution than ultrasound. Prostate MRI is also used for surgical planning for men undergoing robotic prostatectomy. It has also shown to Free female masturbating previews surgeons decide whether to resect or spare the neurovascular bundle, determine return to urinary continence, and help assess surgical difficulty.
If cancer is suspected, a biopsy is offered expediently. During a biopsy a urologist or radiologist obtains tissue samples from the prostate via the rectum. A biopsy gun inserts and removes special hollow-core needles usually three to six Celebtity nude each side of the prostate in less than a second.
Prostate biopsies are routinely done on an outpatient basis and rarely require hospitalization. A histopathologic diagnosis mainly includes discernment of whether there is a cancer, as well as specifying any subdiagnosis of prostate cancer if possible. The histopathologic subdiagnosis of prostate cancer has implications for the possibility and methodology of any subsequent Gleason scoring.
The Gleason grading system is used to help evaluate the prognosis of prostate cancer, helps guide therapy. A Gleason score is given to prostate cancer based upon its architectural appearance.
Pathological scores range from 2 through 10, with higher number indicating greater risks and higher mortality. Tissue samples can be stained for the presence of PSA and other tumor markers in order to determine the origin of malignant cells that have metastasized.
The upregulation of BCL-2 after androgen ablation in prostate carcinoma cell lines and in a castrated-male rat model further established a connection between BCL-2 expression and prostate cancer Prostatee. Its components include the size of the tumor, the number of involved lymph nodesand the presence of any other metastases. Several tests can be used to enccyclopedia for evidence of spread. Prostate cancer wikipedia the free encyclopedia scans should reveal osteoblastic appearance due to increased bone density in the areas of bone metastasis —opposite to what is found wkkipedia many other cancers that metastasize.
After a prostate biopsy, a pathologist looks at the samples under a microscope. If cancer is present, the pathologist reports the grade of the tumor. The grade tells how much the tumor tissue differs from normal prostate tissue and suggests how fast the tumor is likely to grow. The sum of these two numbers is the Gleason score. The data on the relationship between diet and prostate cancer are poor. Consuming fish may lower cncer deaths but does te appear to affect its occurrence.
Men who get regular exercise may have Pdostate slightly lower risk, especially vigorous activity and the risk of advanced prostate cancer. Prostate cancer screening is an effort to find unsuspected cancers in those without symptoms. American Urological Association AUA guidelines call for weighing the benefits of preventing prostate cancer mortality in 1 man for every 1, men screened over a ten-year period against the known harms associated with diagnostic tests and treatment.
The first decision to be made in managing prostate cancer is whether treatment is needed. Prostate cancer, especially low-grade forms found in elderly men, often grows Eden mohr my boobs slowly that no treatment is required.
Alternative approaches that delay active treatment and instead involve surveillance of diagnosed prostate cancers are termed expectant management. Prostate cancer wikipedia the free encyclopedia important factors are age, general health, and a person's views about potential treatments and their possible side effects. A review found little comparative effectiveness research focused on person-centered outcomes for prostate cancer treatments. Guidelines for treatment for specific clinical situations requires a good estimation of a person's long-term life expectancy.
If radiation therapy is done first, and fails, then radical prostatectomy may be an option though it becomes a very technically challenging surgery, is associated Prostaet decreased quality of life and may not be feasible. In localized disease, it is unknown if radical prostatectomy is better or worse than watchful waiting.
The prostate is a gland of the male body that adds part of the fluid to semen.A healthy human prostate is slightly larger than a walnut. It surrounds the urethra just below the urinary bladder.. Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers affecting elderly men in developed (also known as first world) countries and a major cause of kristihedbergphotography.comr rectal exams are for older men Female physiology: Ejaculation – Estrogen – Orgasm . Prostate cancer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 2/26/13 PM From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Prostate cancer is the process by which physicians categorize the risk of cancer having spread beyond the prostate, or equivalently, the. Prostate CancerDefinitionProstate cancer is a disease in which cells in the prostate gland become abnormal and start to grow uncontrollably, forming kristihedbergphotography.comptionProstate cancer is a malignancy of one of the major male sex glands. Along with the testicles and Source for information on Prostate Cancer: The Gale Encyclopedia of Senior Health: A Guide for Seniors and Their Caregivers dictionary.
Prostate cancer wikipedia the free encyclopedia.
A major contributor to this article appears to have a close connection with its subject. Active surveillance is not synonymous with watchful waiting , an older term which implies no treatment or specific program of monitoring, with the assumption that palliative , not curative, treatment would be used if advanced, symptomatic disease develops. Michael Milken Chairman Dr. Isaacs; A. Clinicians may reserve hormonal therapy and chemotherapy for disease that has spread beyond the prostate. This means the urethra , a compressible tube used for urination, runs through the middle of the prostate. Reproductive Physiology of Marsupials. O'Leary; E. The topic of this article may not meet Wikipedia's notability guidelines for companies and organizations. High-dose estrogen therapy is used in the treatment of prostate cancer. Corso; E.
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate , a gland in the male reproductive system. Factors that increase the risk of prostate cancer include older age, a family history of the disease, and race.
Prostate cancer is a disease in which cancer develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. Reference Terms. Cancer occurs when cells of the prostate mutate and begin to multiply out of control. These cells may spread metastasize from the prostate to other parts of the body. Related Stories. However, for some men, prostate cancer