Finding out their HIV status allows people to begin treatments that could extend their life and protect their partners from contracting the condition. The CDC recommends that everyone between the ages of 13 and 64 years old get tested at least once. Many HIV tests look for these antibodies. To confirm HIV status, get tested again at the end of the three-month period. Both are sold at drugstores, but people need to be at least 17 years old to purchase them.
This is because it offers users greater control over their lives. Read this next. Both types of HCT services require informed consent, counselling, and confidentiality to be observed and to be implemented at every health facility. Couples who know their HIV status are empowered to make safer choices with respect to sexual behaviour, e. Rather than serving as an objection against home testing, I suggest that this concern really makes clear the need to enforce existing statutory protection against unlawful Access medical lab hiv testing and discrimination. HIV home testing — a problem or part of the solution? I Access medical lab hiv testing tried to show that some of the reasons for discouraging HIV home testing may not AAccess sufficiently justified. In the USA, for example, manufacturers of mdical test systems have demonstrated that the test system can accurately detect even low levels of antibodies to the HIV virus. In implementing PICT medical practitioners should be guided by three principles, viz.
Access medical lab hiv testing. Laboratory Testing Guidance
Comparison of patient comprehension of rapid HIV pre-test fundamentals by information delivery format in an emergency department setting. S Afr J BL Pics of bleach characters 1 Overcoming barriers to HIV testing: preferences for new strategies among clients of a needle exchange, a sexually transmitted disease clinic, and sex venues for men who have sex with men. People can be trained to properly draw and store their blood for Access medical lab hiv testing in the same way that non- healthcare workers are. First, an appropriate test must detect HIV subtypes and clades that are Access medical lab hiv testing in the region. National Department of Health. The primary objective of counselling before an HIV test i. If the test result is positive the person will need a follow-up blood test at a clinic. BMC Public Health ;
Corresponding author: J Gardner Jillian.
- Of this number, the CDC estimates that half of new infections are caused by persons who are unaware of their status.
- Welcome to Home Access.
- AIDS is a serious disease that can be fatal because the body has lost the ability to fight infections and cancers.
- As part of your HIV care, your provider will order several laboratory tests.
Corresponding author: J Gardner Jillian. Gardner wits. The realisation of the NSP goals requires strategies that lead to a greater number of individuals getting tested. This article has one simple objective — to stimulate discussion and debate on the topic of HIV home testing, which the author postulates may be preferable to some people, largely because it enables individuals to perform some or all aspects of the test in locations chosen by them.
In this way home testing has the benefit of potentially increasing the number of people who test, know their HIV status and consequently present for treatment. Both types of HCT services require informed consent, counselling, and confidentiality to be observed and to be implemented at every health facility.
Realisation of the NSP goals requires strategies that lead to a greater yesting of individuals getting tested. The campaign was based on a routine offer of voluntary HIV testing in a wide variety of settings, including health testig.
Around 1. Given the high rate of refusals, it seems safe to assume that Access medical lab hiv testing testing may not achieve adequate testing coverage.
This article has one simple objective — to stimulate discussion and mwdical on the topic of HIV home testing, Access medical lab hiv testing I postulate testig be preferable to some people, largely because it enables individuals to perform some or niv aspects of the test in locations chosen by them.
In order to stimulate debate and discussion on this topic, Hig consider whether some of the reasons that are usually offered against this approach to counselling and testing are sufficiently justified in the South African context.
In the sections that follow I explain what HIV home testing involves and evaluate some of the arguments that have traditionally been put forward as reasons for opposing this approach. HIV home testing involves the sale of HIV home test kits, either over hv counter, usually in pharmacies, or by mail order or online from the manufacturer, to legally competent adults.
The person takes either a blood or saliva sample and can interpret the result within minutes. Under another form of HIV home testing, which may be referred to as the home sampling or home specimen collection system, a person can take a sample usually ,ab blood sample and send it to a laboratory for testing.
Users are offered pre- and post-test, anonymous and confidential counselling through both printed material Accexs telephonic interaction. If the result is positive, a professional counsellor will provide emotional support and referrals. In the UK, one company reportedly offers home sampling services but uses oral fluid instead of blood. If the test result is positive the person will need a follow-up blood test at a clinic.
In the following section I explore whether some of the objections to home testing can withstand closer scrutiny. I suggest that many of the concerns about HIV home testing can be avoided through careful planning, implementation, regulation and monitoring of the system. The availability of access to potentially unreliable mesical instruments is of grave concern.
Despite controls in the USA and UK, unapproved HIV home test kits continue to be marketed and sold in a seemingly indiscriminate manner — over the Internet and in newspaper and magazine advertisements. Typically, customers cannot know for certain whether the testing instrument that comes in the kit they purchase is reliable.
In the USA, for example, manufacturers of approved test systems have demonstrated that the test system can accurately detect even low levels of antibodies to the HIV virus. A properly controlled system can potentially facilitate informed decision-making by Outdoor sex vidoe free and protect them from unsafe or unreliable testing devices by, for example, approving only reliable test kits and educating and warning the public about the system and unreliable test kits.
Often it is also argued that HIV home teshing will create the possibility for abuse of individual rights. Situations could arise where especially vulnerable groups, such as employees, children and women in abusive relationships, are testong without their Marek paul gosslaar naked and experience violations of their privacy rights and thus become vulnerable to further abuse and harm.
Rather than serving as an objection against home testing, I suggest that this concern really makes clear the need to enforce existing statutory protection against unlawful testing and discrimination. HIV testing must always be voluntary and free of coercion.
The primary objective of counselling before an HIV test i. It serves Access medical lab hiv testing a means to provide cAcess and information about HIV transmission and prevention so that individuals can make informed choices lqb whether to take the test. Of particular concern with regard to home testing systems is the potential lack of post-test counselling. The idea behind informed decision-making is the enhancement of personal autonomy. But obligatory medicao as to how counselling should occur can have the effect of undermining the very principle that informed consent seeks to mddical by deterring people from testing.
The value of home testing lies in its potential to enhance personal autonomy and rights. This is because it offers users greater control over their lives. Respecting mevical autonomy entails respecting the wishes of people about whether or not they will test, the conditions under which they choose to test, and whether they go for counselling.
So, provided individuals make voluntary decisions based on accurate and appropriate information and understanding, their choices should ideally be respected. This perhaps should include the decision about which system of HIV testing they will utilise.
While the need to obtain informed consent is appropriate and makes sense in settings where counselling and testing occur under the supervision of designated Wives and their lapdogs workers, it seems somewhat ,ab in the context of home Adcess, where potential users need simply to purchase a test kit to show that they have made a decision about HIV testing. Some of the reasons medicxl have given for not testing for HIV include privacy Access confidentiality concerns, inconvenience, a dislike of counselling, not wanting to go to a Bottle feeding orphan calf, and a lack of Fisting on toilet to go to clinics.
To this end the country has embarked on several initiatives. Statistics suggest that strategies such as the national HCT campaign have been successful in ensuring that a greater number of South Africans are tested for HIV.
Arguably, a large number of the population still do not know their HIV status. Surveys on home collection kits for HIV testing in the USA demonstrated that they were highly acceptable among an estimated customers in the first year of use. In resource-limited settings, home testing currently means door-to-door implementation of rapid tests by lay counsellors or community health workers.
Several studies have illustrated the feasibility and acceptability of home-based testing as a strategy for expanding access to HIV testing. For example, a Ugandan study that compared four HIV testing strategies: stand-alone VCT, hospital-based PICT, home-based PICT, and household member home based testing, found that although hospital-based PICT was associated with the highest proportion of individuals receiving a diagnosis of HIV infection, home-based and household member home-based testing reached the greatest proportion of previously untested adults.
One could therefore argue that if properly trained non-healthcare workers can test for HIV, the same could and perhaps should hold for legally competent adults under a home testing system. People can be trained to properly draw and store their blood for testing in the same way that non- healthcare workers are. Arguably, current strategies that rely on facility-based testing are inadequate for the goal of ensuring universal HIV identification and treatment.
This demands consideration of alternative methods such as HIV home testing. I have tried to show that some of the reasons for discouraging HIV home testing may not be sufficiently justified. I suggest that the concerns about HIV home testing need not act as impediments to making available safe and reliable test kits to, at least, a limited class of individuals, namely legally competent adults.
Appropriate education on, for example, the proper use, nature, implications testingg limitations of the test as well as the offer of alternative modes of counselling are means that can facilitate informed medidal making by potential users. Many of the concerns about HIV home testing can be avoided through careful planning, implementation, monitoring and regulation of the system. Pharmacists can play an important role in home mrdical systems.
This includes the sale of safe, appropriate and reliable test kits that have received approval from appropriate authorities and comply with the regulatory Accesss of the country. However, although theoretical arguments can be made medicaal support of HIV home testing, its introduction should be based on sound scientific data, a thorough risk-benefit analysis, its cost-effectiveness, and consultation with prospective users, around acceptability and cost in particular.
The translation of US testing kits to the South African context requires consideration of several issues. First, an appropriate test must detect HIV subtypes and clades that are prevalent in the region. Second, the test should be easy, safe and quick to use, and simple to interpret. Finally, expanding HIV testing through home testing is only beneficial to individuals and the public at large if testing emdical linked to effective prevention, medical care and psychosocial support. Introducing home testing therefore requires that efficient measures are in place to ensure clinical care and support tesitng for those who are identified as infected at home.
The author acknowledges contributions made by reviewers of earlier drafts of this article. Conflict of interest. The author declares that there are no medocal or personal relationships that may have inappropriately influenced the writing of this paper.
National Department of Health. Pretoria: Department of Health, tezting Bodibe K. How do HIV tests work? US Food and Drug Administration. Access medical lab hiv testing yourself for HIV-1 questions and answers. Approach to validation of over-the-counter home use HIV test hif, Complete list of donor screening assays for infectious agents and HIV diagnostic assays, Home testing for HIV.
South African Department of Health. Rapid HIV tests and testing, October Anonymous HIV testing using Access collection and telemedicine counseling: a multicenter evaluation.
Arch Intern Med ; 3 Telephonic vs. J Adolesc Health ;30 3 Usefulness of human immunodeficiency virus post-test counseling by telephone for low-risk clients of an urban sexually transmitted diseases clinic. Sex Transm Dis ; Comparison of patient comprehension of rapid HIV pre-test fundamentals by information delivery format in an emergency department setting. BMC Public Health ; Overcoming emdical to HIV testing: preferences for new strategies among clients of a needle exchange, a sexually transmitted disease clinic, hi sex venues for men who have sex with men.
J Acquir Immune Defic Mefical ; Attitudes to HIV voluntary counselling and hib among mineworkers in South Africa: will availability of antiretroviral therapy encourage testing? AIDS Care ;15 5 BMC Public Health ;30 8 Am J Mens Health ;3 2 Home testing for HIV Access medical lab hiv testing in resource-limited settings. Branson BM. Home sample collection tests for HIV infection. JAMA ; AIDS ;
Home Access discontinues sale of HIV-1 Test Service Click for more Information. Welcome to Home Access. We exist to inform consumers about their health through easy-to-use, self-collected lab tests. Please click a link below to see how Home Access can serve you. Health Plans. Home Care. Your health care provider or local public health department can tell you where to get HIV treatment. You can find Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program medical care providers external icon who help people living with HIV access medical care, medications external icon, . This section focuses on FDA-approved diagnostic HIV tests for use in moderate and high complexity laboratories. Laboratory Testing Guidance. Quick Reference Guide: laboratory HIV testing algorithm for serum or plasma specimens.
Access medical lab hiv testing. Concerns about the reliability of testing instruments
Unlike other viruses, HIV is a progressive disease in which symptoms and severity vary between people. AIDS Care ;15 5 Cancel Continue. Are home HIV tests accurate? Concerns about the reliability of testing instruments The availability of access to potentially unreliable testing instruments is of grave concern. If a person experiences these symptoms after having sex not protected by condoms , injecting drugs, or receiving a blood transfusion , they should consider taking an HIV test to see if HIV is the cause. Read this next. In addition to gauging whether the information that was given was understood, providers need to conduct a risk assessment with the client as part of the history taking. Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website. JAMA ; Approach to validation of over-the-counter home use HIV test kits, Fylkesnes K, Siziya S.
South Africa has the highest number of people living with HIV in the world. Provider-initiated counselling and testing PICT has been introduced to ensure that HCT becomes the standard of care in all consultations with health providers.
The only way to know for sure whether you have HIV is to get tested. CDC recommends that everyone between the ages of 13 and 64 get tested for HIV at least once as part of routine health care. Knowing your HIV status gives you powerful information to help you take steps to keep you and your partner healthy. You should be tested at least once a year if you keep doing any of these things. Even if you are in a monogamous relationship both you and your partner are having sex only with each other , you should find out for sure whether you or your partner has HIV. Testing pregnant women for HIV infection and treating those women who have HIV have led to a big decline in the number of children infected with HIV from their mothers. However, there are still great health benefits to beginning preventive treatment even during labor or shortly after the baby is born. HIV tests are typically performed on blood or oral fluid.